Tuesday, November 4, 2008

西方哲学之道路 The Journal of the Western Philosophy

生活世界:1936 年胡塞尔提出‘生活世界’的概念,强调人类紧密的套入现实实体之中。生命世界是人类分析、沟通和社交于多个区域的社会、政治、历史和文化环境。
The journal of the Western philosophy can be divided into three significant phases of Oneness, Rationalism and Life-world.
Oneness: Many, most notably Aristotle, regard Thales as the first philosopher in the Greek tradition. Thales attempted to find naturalistic explanations of the world, without reference to the supernatural. He believed that there was a basic similarity between all things, including human being, in the world. They are all related to each other by the One. The One, to him was Water. Philosophers after him offered similar explanations of the world, although their Oneness pointed to different things.
Rationalism: Socrates and Plato were disillusioned by the conflicting answers and theories put forward by philosophers before them regarding the nature of world. Plato shifted his attention to study man’s ability to acquire knowledge. He was convinced that there are unchanging and universal truths, which human reason is capable of grasping. This line of thinking resulted in Western rationalism that plays a significant role in facilitating the advancement of sciences and technologies in the West.
It is said that the creation of modern science in the seventeenth century has solved the problem of learning about the nature of the universe. But we have yet to solve the problems of man’s place in it and learning how to become civilized. This would put us in a situation of great danger.
Life-world: Husserl introduced the concept of life-world 1936 to stress the solidness of the human encapsulation in reality. The life-world is a social, political, historical, and cultural environment where human beings interpret, communicate, and socially engage in multiple communal spheres.
Heidegger articulated it with the notion of ‘Being-in-the-world’, which stands for a unitary phenomenon and needs to be seen as a whole. That means to be human is to be embedded and immersed in the physical, tangible day to day world.

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