Friday, October 31, 2008

蔡元培: 以美育代宗教 Cai Yuanpei: Replacing Religion With Art Education

蔡元培(1868-1940),一个二十世纪初卓越的开放的教育者,就以他在改革传统教育和综合中西方教育思想所做的努力而著名。他的教育方针是“五育”并行 :军国民教育(体育)、实利主义教育(智育)、公民道德教育(德育)、世界观教育(哲学观念教育)、美感教育(美育)。
西方美育的概念由王国维(1877 - 1927),一个在哲学、文学批评、中国历史等领域的先驱人物,最先介绍到中国来。但是,蔡元培却是比较有效的推行者。他们两位都确信衰退中的古老中国制度能以现代教育来重建和更生。
Around the turn of the twentieth century that featured the influx of western ideas, China witnessed a new cultural movement sprang from the disillusionment with traditional Chinese culture.
The development of the New Culture Movement promoted the questioning and re-appraisal of millennia-old Chinese values. The scholars called for the creation of a new Chinese culture based on global and western standards, especially democracy and science. That also meant there was a need for re-examination of Confucian texts and ancient classics using modern textual and critical methods.
Cai Yuanpei (1868-1940), the leading liberal educator of early twentieth-century China, was noted for his pioneering work in reforming the system of traditional education and for his efforts to synthesize Chinese and Western educational ideas. His educational policy was characterized by the unity of five types of education: military/citizenship, utilitarian, moral, a world view, and aesthetic education.

The Western notion of aesthetic education was first introduced to China by Wang Guowei (1877 - 1927), a pioneering scholar in fields as diverse as philosophy, aesthetics, literary criticism, Chinese history. However, it was more effectively promoted by Cai Yuanpei (1868-1940). Both were convinced that the declining institutions of old China could be reconstructed and revived by means of modern education.

Cai Yuanpei took advantage of his role as a front-line administrator and renowned educator who led the administrative renovation of Peking University to spread his ideas. He was especially known for his slogan of “replacing religion with aesthetic education”. This actually signals the end of religious education in China and since 1949, formal religious education is banned except in licensed schools of theology, which are usually college-level and above.

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