Saturday, December 13, 2008

二元论:现代科学之诞生 Dualism: Modern Science Made Possible

我们可以说,笛卡儿(1596 – 1650)强调宇宙之双重本质时,他是强调心物二元论的思想。把这两种物质完全独立分开,他让自然科学自由地以机械来解释自然。
伽利略(1564 – 1642)严厉地把物理与形而上学分开来。伽利略是现代动力学的发明者。他认为形而上学与物理是两种完全分开,不能互相转移的学说,而他只对物理有兴趣。因此,他可能是第一个专业科学家。
We may speak of the thought of Descartes (1596 – 1650) as emphasizing the dualism of mind and matter, which is, stressing the two-fold nature of the universe. By making these two substances entirely independent, he left nature free from the mechanical explanation of natural science.
The sciences could busy themselves with a study of nature without having to worry about mind. Science could develop along purely mechanical lines without having to make room for purposes, goals, and other characteristics of mind and spirit. It could busy itself with the discovery of the laws by which all bodies act and moves. Indeed, in this way modern science was made possible.
Galileo (1564 – 1642) also sharply separated physics from metaphysics. Galileo was the founder of modern kinematics. He thought that metaphysics and physics were two separate, untranslatable discourses, and he was only interested in physics. This probably makes him the first professional scientist.
Descartes and Galileo adopted two different rational ways of thinking about the world and both led to the birth of modern science. For, contrary to Galileo, Descartes did think hard about metaphysics, so much so that he is considered the father of modern philosophy. Since metaphysics was the rational ground for believing in God, it is not difficult to understand why Galileo had made some powerful enemies, especially among the Jesuits.

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