Tuesday, March 3, 2009

艺术与有意味的形式 Arts and the Significant Form

1914年,克 莱夫•贝尔提出了‘有意味的形式’的学说,把物体的真实形式与‘有意味的形式’分辨开来。他说:
‘唤起我们审美情感的所有对象的共同属性是什么呢?圣索非亚教堂(Sta.Sophia)、加特斯 的窗户、墨西哥的雕塑、一个波斯碗、中国地毯、乔托在帕多瓦的壁画、普桑(Poussin)的杰作、皮耶罗•德拉•弗朗切斯卡和塞尚的作品共同的属性又是什么呢?可能的答案只有一个 — 有意味的形式。在每件作品中,以某种独特的方式组合起来的线条和色彩、特定的形式和形式关系激发了我们的审美情感。我把线条和颜色的这些组合和关系,以及这些在审美上打动人的形式称作“有意味的形式”,它就是所有视觉艺术作品所具有的那种共同属性。’
We noted that Kant says that judgment of beauty ‘should properly concern merely form.’ One can say that this is a formalist a statement.
Formalism is the concept that the most important aspect of a work of art is its form, that is, the way it is made and its purely visual aspects, rather than its narrative content or its relationship to the visible world. Formalism emphasizes compositional elements such as colour, line, shape and texture rather than realism, context, and content.
In painting therefore, a formalist would focus exclusively on the qualities of colour, brushwork, form, line and composition.
In 1914, Clive bell further propounded the theory of ‘Significant form’ to make a distinction between a thing's actual form and its 'significant form.' He said:
‘There must be some one quality without which a work of art cannot exist; possessing which, in the least degree, no work is altogether worthless. What is this quality? What quality is shared by all objects that provoke our aesthetic emotions? What quality is common to Sta. Sophia and the windows at Chartres, Mexican sculpture, a Persian bowl, Chinese carpets, Giotto’s frescoes at Padua, and the masterpieces of Poussin, Piero della Francesca, and Cezanne? Only one answer seems possible - significant form. In each, lines and colours combined in a particular way, certain forms and relations of forms, stir our aesthetic emotions. These relations and combinations of lines and colours, these aesthetically moving forms, I call "Significant Form"; and "Significant form" is the one quality common to all works of visual art.’
For Bell, recognition of a work of art as representational of a thing was less important than capturing the 'significant form', or true inner nature, of a thing.

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