Tuesday, May 11, 2010

尼采:美学最可能替代宗教 Nietzsche: Aesthetics, the Most Promising Alternative to Religion

尼采场被认为是后现代主义之父。作为十九世纪德国三个大哲学家的最后一位 – 其他两位是黑格尔与马克思,他为随后的思维作出了决定性的陈述。对于那些尝试把道德世俗化而从基督道德中分离出来,尼采鄙视他们,并宣称上帝已经死亡。初看是十分令人不快的。可是就如那在水里被慢慢加温的青蛙那样,他的思想却慢慢地爬进了我们。原来被认为不可思议与荒谬的,现在已经被普遍接受。
Friedrich Nietzsche is often called the father of postmodernism. Being the last of the three great German philosophers of the nineteenth century - the other two being Hegel and Marx, he made the definitive statement that set the stage for what was to follow. Contemptuous of those who tried to secularize morality by divorcing it from Christianity, Nietzsche pronounced God dead. Perhaps offensive at first, his thinking, like the proverbial frog on the stove, has crept up on us. What was once thought of as incomprehensible and absurd has now become widely accepted.
However, he was appalled at the consequences that would follow once everyone fully aware of the implication of the death of God. The death of God meant for Nietzsche the opening of a new day – a day when the life-denying ethics of Christianity could be replace with a life-affirmation philosophy and this turned him to central question of human values. In his search for a new foundation for values in a day when God no longer be the goal and sanction of human conduct, Nietzsche believed that aesthetics was the most promising alternative to religion.
Only as aesthetic phenomenon, he said, are human existence and the world eternally justified. The Greeks, he believed, originally discovered the true meaning of human effort. He drew his fundamental insights about human nature from the Greek conceptions of Apollo and Dionysus. He believed the aesthetic value results from a fusion between two principles, which are respectively represented by the two Greek gods.
Dionysus symbolised the dynamic stream of life, which knows no restraints or barriers and defies all limitations. Apollo, on the hand, was the symbol of order, restraint, and form. From another point of view, the Dionysian represents the negative and destructive dark power of the soul, which when unchecked, will culminate in that disgusting mixture of voluptuousness and cruelty typical of the most savage beasts of nature. The Apollonian, by contrast, represents the power to deal with the powerful surge of vital energy, to harness destructive powers, and to transmute these into creative act.
For Netzsche, the supreme achievement of human nature occurred in Greek culture where the Dionysian and Apollonian elements were brought together, rather than respecting only the Apollonian spirit. The fact is that human life inevitably includes the dark and surging forces of passion. What disqualified religious faith, he believed, was the essentially life-denying negativeness of the Christian ethics.

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