Tuesday, June 9, 2009

忧虑的哲学与务实主义 The Philosophy of Concern and Pragmatism

道家亦倾向于强调生活的实用主义。道家教导是,由于所有的物体都像流水一般,他们的性质不停地由反向转向反向,以致我们不知如何把哪一种信念区分优先次序 。所以,在没有什么是好或坏的一致信念的情况下,我们应该追求自然,就是说自然的行动。道家相信,这种追求自然的务实目标,会导致最有效益的一种生活方式。
We noted that the Chinese philosophy began as a result of an attitude of concern, which led finally to practical wisdom for guiding human destiny. Therefore, the Chinese are decidedly anthropocentric in their motivations for the acquisition, organization and transmission of knowledge.
The central focus of Chinese philosophy throughout the ages has been a practical concern with man and society, how to live an ideal life, and how best to organize society. Confucius (551-479 BC) and his teachings are generally recognised as the genesis and bedrock of much of ancient Chinese philosophical thought.
Confucianism excels in its adaptability to varying circumstances and in its magnetism, which attracts whatever is good and useful. In this way, Confucianism, ever growing with time, has become a treasure house of the age-old experiences of the Chinese people. Hence the chief strength of Confucianism is its flexibility, a remarkable quality that enables it to resist all pressures and to face all adversities. For this reason, though suffering eclipse from time to time, it has always emerged with renewed brilliance.
It is said that a pragmatist always turns towards concreteness and adequacy, towards facts, towards action and towards power. Numerous Confucian sayings are summed up from plenty of observations on experience, that is, they turn towards the concrete and the adequacy, towards facts and actions.
The Daoists also tend to emphasize a pragmatic view of life. Daoism teaches that because all things are, like running water, constantly shifting in value from opposite to opposite we cannot prioritise one belief over another. Therefore, without any consistent idea of what good or bad might really be, we must act to emulate ‘Ziran’ (acting spontaneously). The pragmatic goal of emulating Ziran, Daoists believe, leads to a way of living that gets things achieved in the most effective and efficient way possible.

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